Thomas Ballard & Ann Thomas

Dorothy's ggggggggg-grandparents

by Dan Reddell

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  • ID: I00952

  • Name: Thomas Ballard 1 2 3

  • Sex: M

  • Birth: 1630 in Inkborough, Worcester, England 1

  • Death: 24 MAR 1688/89 in Middle Plantatio, Williamsburg, James City Co., VA 1

  • Christening: Buriel: Bruton P 1

  • Burial: Bruton Church

  • Note:

    From "Genealogies of Virginia Families" from Tyler's Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine.

    Colonel Thomas Ballard was an attorney and a member of the House of Burgesses from James City Co., VA, 1666. Re-elected for the sessions 1682-83-84-85-86. He was Speaker of the House of Burgesses in 1680-82-83-84. He was Owner of historic "Middle Plantation", on which some of the land is now located on the College of William and Mary, and a part of the city of Williamsburg. Thomas Ludwell sold this land March 1674-75 to Honorable Thomas Ballard of the Council by the deed below." (no copy). In 1693 Ballard sold the same tract of land to the Trustees of the College, and the Deed was at the College, until about 1892, when it disappeared.

    Colonel Ballard and his wife are mentioned as victims of Nat Bacon's Rebellion. The Colonel was a member of the King's Council, 1675-1688. This was a position of high honor under Governor Berkeley who in turn received his appointment from the King.

    "Colonel Thomas Ballard was born in 1630, baptized at Inkborough, England, County of Worcester, 1636. He was the son of Henry Ballard, baptized at St. Margaret's West Minster, February 28, 1585, England and he died in Virgina.

    Colonel Thomas Ballard died at his home in Middle Plantation, now Williamsburg and was buried at Bruton Parish, March 24, 1689. He married Miss Anne Thomas, daughter of William and Ann Thomas of York County, Virginia. She died September 26, 1678.
    ----------------

    From Southside Virginia Families by John Bennett Boddie, 1955, Pacific Coast Publishers, Redwood City, California, pp. 17-24
    "It has been stated that the first of the name in America was William Ballard, born in England 1609 and his son Thomas, born in England in 1630, same to America on the ship "James", arriving at Yorktown in May 1635. The Richmond Times Dispatch, in an article written in 1888 on "Ballard" says that William remained for some time in Virginia, but after the death of his wife he removed to Andover, Massachusetts and died there in 1689. He married at Andover, Grace _____ and had (so T.D. says) Joseph, who married Elizabeth Phelps, and perhaps other children.
    "Thomas Ballard, son of William Ballard and Elizabeth, remained in Virginia, and in 1654 was Clerk of York County. (End of quoted statement).
    "Now, the list of "Emigrants to America" by Hotten, page 107, shows the following emigrants "imbarqued on the 'James', 13 July 1635, to be transported to New England":
    William Ballard, Husband 32 years
    Elizabeth Ballard, 26 years
    Hester Ballard, 2 years
    Jo. Ballard, 1 year
    "No "Thomas Ballard, aged 5" is shown in this list and the ship evidently sailed directly to New England.
    "There was a Ballard family in Wadhurst, Sussex, England, whose arms were "Sable, a griffin sergeant ermine, armed or". They had resided there for many generations previous to the coming of Thomas Ballard to Virginia. (See Misc. Gen. & Heraldica) There were many "Thomas', Johns and Williams" in this family and it is very probable that Col. Thomas Ballard of Virginia was a descendant of one of the branches of this family. However, the "William Ballard", third son of Thomas Ballard who died at Wadhurst, Feb. 9, 1624, does not appear to be the William who came to America in the ship "James". Thomas Ballard's eldest son Thomas, was aged 15 in 1619, according to the above pedigree. He also had a daughter Elizabeth, unmarried, and another one, Martha, married to Abraham Haynes. Inasmuch as Thomas Ballard, the eldest son, was born in 1604, William, the third son, was born much later and therefore could not be the above William Ballard, born 1603 who came on the ship "James".
    "In a search for verification of the connection of this family with Virginia, it was found that Thomas Ballard, born in 1604, who married Anne, daughter of Sir Nathaniel Napper, (Berry's Sussex p. 116) made his will in London Sept. 10, 1641, same probated Sept. 18, 1641. He bequeathed all his lands and tenements given him in the will of his father, Thomas, to his brother William Ballard; wife Anne, daughter Anne; godchild Samuel Maplesden; brothers Mr. John White, and Abraham Haynes. Executor, brother William Ballard. (It seems that his sister Elizabeth married John White). The will of Thomas' brother, Richard of London, was probated Aug. 1, 1638. He died unmarried and bequeathed his property to his bother, Abraham Haynes, Rector of St. Olaves, Hart Street, London. The children of Abraham Haynes were: Martha, born Mar 15, 1634; Thomas, born Oct. 18, 1638; William, born April 22, 1640; Abraham Haynes, died Mar 29, 1649; Martha, his wife died Sept 23, 1647 (Register). (The wills are from the "Ballard Genealogy" by C. F. Farlow, 1911, p. 1) William Ballard was the survivor of this family and inherited all of their property. It is very doubtful, therefore, that he would leave England for America.
    "Thomas Ballard, the founder of the Virginia family, as "Mr. Thomas Ballard", patented "1000 acres in Glouster Co., now called "New Kent Co." on S.E. side of Mattapony, along the head of Mr. William Wyatt's land, 16 July 1655, for the transportation of 20 persons". (C.P. 309) His next patent was for 600 acres upon the head of Poropotank River, W.N.W. upon land of Capt. Stephen Gill, dec'd. 15 Oct 1657. Thomas assigned this land to Major David Cant, April 2, 1662. (C.P. 334, 496)
    "On Oct 6 1658, Thomas Hickman re-patented Thomas Ballard's first grant of 1000 acres in New Kent for Hickman's grant shows same "granted to Mr. Thomas Ballard 16 July 1655 and by him deserted." (C.P. 379)
    "It seems that Thomas Ballard "deserted" the 1000 acres and added 300 more "upon the north side of Mattapony River" for on Oct 6 1658, he patented 1300 acres there and used the same 20 headrights he had used in his first grant. (C.P. 380)
    "On April 16, 1664, Anthony Branch patented 150 acres on N.W. branch of Nansemond River, which had been sold to him by Mr. Thomas Ballard.
    "Thomas Ballard was appointed Clerk of York County in 1652, and served for many years thereafter. He was a Burgess from James City in 1666; was appointed Lt. Col. of Militia in 1669, and a member of the Council in 1675, later was re-elected to the House of Burgesses and became Speaker of the House in 1680-84. Colonel Ballard's wife Ann, together with Mrs. Elizabeth Bacon, wife of Nathaniel Bacon, Sr., (A cousin of Nathanial Bacon, Jr. the Rebel); Mrs. Angelica Bray, wife of Colonel James Bray, and Mrs. Elizabeth Page, wife of Colonel John Page, all wives of members of the Council were captured by Nathanial Bacon, Jr., during his rebellion, by a raid on the Middle Plantation.
    "When Bacon besieged Jamestown these ladies, wearing white aprons, were compelled to stand before his breastworks, so they could be recognized by their husbands, and thereby cause Gov. Berkeley to cease his cannonade. (2 W I-276)
    "Colonel Ballard married Ann, step-daughter of William Thomas, whose will was probated in York County, about 1664. In his will Thomas mentioned wife Anne; . . . calls Sarah Herman and Jane Hilliard "daughters-in-law" and Thomas Ballard "son-in-law". Son-in-law in those days meant "step-son" (See Hilliard).
    "Thomas Ballard and his son, Thomas, were vestrymen of Historic Bruton Parish Church at Williamsburg where he was buried March 24, 1689. His name is inscribed on a bronze tablet in the interior of the Church, also on the name plate of a pew.
    "His children were: (1.) John, dsp. (2) Thomas, (1654-1711); (3) Lydia; (4) Elizabeth; (5) Martha; (6) William; (7) Francis, all said to have been born at Middle Plantation, now Williamsburg.
    ------------------------
    See from America's first families ancestor roll of honor at http://www.linkline.com/personal/xymox/roh/ballard.htm

    THOMAS BALLARD
    VIRGINIA (1630/31-1689)

    In Colonial Virginia, Thomas BALLARD was often referred to as the Honorable Thomas BALLARD, or as Colonel BALLARD. He was born in March of 1630/31 in England. Some researchers believe that he was brought to the New World as a child by his parents.

    Whether or not he came as a child, it is fair to say that he was the founder of the Virginia BALLARD family. Thomas BALLARD married Anne THOMAS in 1650. Anne bore his eight children before her death in 1678.

    Thomas lived in York County, Virginia, and imported at least twenty persons into Gloucester County, Virginia, under the head right system. He also patented land in Gloucester, County as well as lands on the Propotank and Mattapony rivers. Both the head right system and the land patenting practice were devised to populate the new colonies and proved to be lucrative propositions for many of the early colonists.

    Thomas BALLARD was a party to a number of recorded land trading transactions. Among these was the purchase and sale of the land on which William and Mary College was founded."The College of William and Mary was originally built on a tract of 330 acres most of which has been sold off, only about 30 acres remain. The tract was the property of the Honorable Thomas LUDWELL, Secretary of State 1660-1678, who lived at 'Richneck'on the west side of Archers Hope Creek. Thomas LUDWELL sold this land March 1674-75 to Hon. Thomas BALLARD of the Council...In 1693 BALLARD sold the same tract to the Trustees of the College."

    It was probably Thomas BALLARD Jr. who made the sale in 1693, since Thomas the elder died in 1689. It is of interest to note that the grandson of Colonel Thomas BALLARD, William BALLARD, married a LUDWELL.

    Thomas BALLARD was a member of the Governor's Council, whose members were chosen from the wealthiest, most educated and influential citizens of the colony. In this office, of Counselor, he was both a Naval officer and a collector of customs. Members of this council constituted the Upper House of the General Assembly. In many respects, they were the New World counterpart of the English House of Lords. His many offices included Clerk of York County, Member of Council, Member of the House of Burgesses, and Speaker of the House of Burgesses. He was also a Colonel in the James City County
    militia.

    At the height of his political career, the Bacon Rebellion had a devastating effect on his life. In a raid on Middle Plantation, the rebels kidnapped the wives of many of the Governor's highest officials. These included the wife of Thomas BALLARD, as well as the wife of Nathaniel BACON's cousin, who was also on the Governor's Counsel.

    The kidnapped women were used as human shields against and retaliation of the Governor. Once the rebellion collapsed, BALLARD sat on the court martial of BACON the rebel. Still, the trauma of these events took its toll. Within a year of the court martial, BALLARD's wife died.

    In the following and final decade of his life, Thomas BALLARD remarried, was promoted to the rank of Colonel of the James City County militia, was elected speaker of the House of Burgesses, and was vestryman of Bruton Parish Church. Upon his death in 1689, he was buried at Bruton Church, and his name was inscribed on a bronze tablet as well as a pew nameplate there.
    Submitted by George F. Emerson

    The Children of Thomas BALLARD and Anne THOMAS were. 1. Thomas b.1654 York, Co. VA. d.c.26 Sept 1706 2.John b.1659 York Co. VA. 3. Lydia b.1660 York Co. VA. 4. Martha Margaret b.1661 James City Co. VA. 5. William b1663. 6. Elizabeth b.1665 Spottslvania, VA 7. Frances b.1665 James City Co. VA. 8. Matthew b.1667 James City, Co. VA
    Married 2, Alice?...no known children

    NOMINATED TO AMERICA'S FIRST FAMILIES ANCESTOR ROLL OF HONOR BY; THOMAS BALLARD'S 12TH GENERATION GREAT GRANDSON GEORGE FRANKLIN EMERSON of OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLAHOMA

    --------
    From Marriages of some Virginia Residents 1607-1800 by Dorothy Ford Wulfeck Volume I Surnames A-H, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. Baltimore 1986
    p. 64
    Thomas, Col., son of Col. Thomas, m. Katherine Hubard, dau. of John and Katherine. Bell, p. 173; 4V360; 35V49; 4W(1)135.
    -------------

    From Cavaliers and Pioneers Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 abstracted and indexed by Nell Marion Nugent, Virginia Land Office, Richmond, VA. 1934, Press of the Dietz Printing Co., Vol One.
    p. 309
    "MR. THOMAS BALLARD, 1,000 acs. Glouseter Co., now called New Kent Co., on S.E. side of Mettopony Riv & along the head of Mr. William Wyatt's land. 16 July 1655. Trans. of 20 pers: James Cook, Robert Fisher, Thomas Crump, Wm. Johnson, Wm. Cunningham, Elizabeth Masterson, Grace Farloe, Thomas Pritchard, Grace Fisher, Ann Simpson, James Glover, Thomas Pratt, Toby. Forester, Richard Proby, Cuthbert Jackson, James Cooper, William Smith, Fra. Crosyer, James Smith, Sarah Talbott. Page 350." Patent Book No. 3.
    p. 354 - Patent Book No. 4
    "THOMAS BALLARD, 600 acs. upon the head of Pyanketanke Riv. & W. N. W. upon land of Capt. Stephen Gill, dec'd. 15 Oct. 1657, p. 126, (186). Granted unto Abraham Moone 1 Nov. 1654, & by him assigned unto sd. Ballard. Renewed 2 Apr. 1662 in name of Major David Cant, assignee of sd. Ballard."
    p. 379 - Patent Book No. 4
    "THOMAS HICKMAN, 1000 acs. New Kent Co., 6 Oct. 1658, p. 224, (322). On S.E. side of Mattappany Riv., beg. at the head of Mr. Wm. Wyatts lower devdt. Granted to Mr. Thomas BALLARD 16 July 1655, by him deserted & now due for trans. of 20 pers. Rights for 640 acs. granted to Mr. Wm. Lewis, 25 May 1654 & assigned to sd. Hickman which patent & the land therein conteyned is relinquished."
    p. 380
    "MR. THOMAS BALLARD, 1300 acs. New Kent Co., 6 Oct. 1658, p. 232, (330). Upon N. side of Mattapany Riv. & branches of Whorecock Swamp. Trans. of 26 pers: Wm. Reynolls, Hannah Reynolds, Abygoll Reynolls, Jno. Reynolls, James Glover, Cutbert Jackson, James Smith, Hannah Reynolls, Deborah Reynolls, James Cooke, Robt. Fisher. Tho. Pratt, James Cooper, Sarah Talbott, Tho. Crumpe, Wm. Jnoson (Johnson), Wm. Cunningham, Eliz. Masterson, Toby. Forrester, Wm. Smith, Grace Farloe, Tho. Pritchard, Grace Fisher, Anna Simpson, Richard Proby, Francis Croper."
    p. 498 - Patent Book No. 5
    MAJOR DAVID CANT, 912 acs., 1 Oct. 1663, p. 316 (300). 600 acs. on S. side of Peanketanke Riv., bounded on E.S.E. with br. of same, W.N.W. upon land of Capt. Stephen Gill, dec'd., &c. 312 acs. on S. side of sd. Riv., adj. devdt. he is now seated on, beg. at the mouth of the Stoare (or Score) branch &c. to Stephen Gills land &c. to Mr. Ludlowes corner Sickamore tree &c. 600 acs. granted to THOMAS BALLARD 14 Oct. 1657 & assigned to sd. Cant & 312 acs. for trans. of 6 pers: Fra. Hart, Wm. Callis, Mary Partin, Tho. Jones, Wm. Crump, Edw. Lewre."
    p. 518
    ANTHONY BRANCH, 150 acs. in the N.W. br. of Nancimond Riv., butting on land of Symon Symons &c. 16 Aug. 1664, p. 382, (426). Granted to Robt. Sabin 11 June 1653, by him sold to Mr. THOS. BALLARD, who sold to sd. Branch.

    From "Genealogies of Virginia Families" from Tyler's Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine.

    Colonel Thomas Ballard was an attorney and a member of the House of Burgesses from James City Co., VA, 1666. Re-elected for the sessions 1682-83-84-85-86. He was Speaker of the House of Burgesses in 1680-82-83-84. He was Owner of historic "Middle Plantation", on which some of the land is now located on the College of William and Mary, and a part of the city of Williamsburg. Thomas Ludwell sold this land March 1674-75 to Honorable Thomas Ballard of the Council by the deed below." (no copy). In 1693 Ballard sold the same tract of land to the Trustees of the College, and the Deed was at the College, until about 1892, when it disappeared.

    Colonel Ballard and his wife are mentioned as victims of Nat Bacon's Rebellion. The Colonel was a member of the King's Council, 1675-1688. This was a position of high honor under Governor Berkeley who in turn received his appointment from the King.

    "Colonel Thomas Ballard was born in 1630, baptized at Inkborough, England, County of Worcester, 1636. He was the son of Henry Ballard, baptized at St. Margaret's West Minster, February 28, 1585, England and he died in Virgina.

    Colonel Thomas Ballard died at his home in Middle Plantation, now Williamsburg and was buried at Bruton Parish, March 24, 1689. He married Miss Anne Thomas, daughter of William and Ann Thomas of York County, Virginia. She died September 26, 1678.
    ----------------

    From Southside Virginia Families by John Bennett Boddie, 1955, Pacific Coast Publishers, Redwood City, California, pp. 17-24
    "It has been stated that the first of the name in America was William Ballard, born in England 1609 and his son Thomas, born in England in 1630, same to America on the ship "James", arriving at Yorktown in May 1635. The Richmond Times Dispatch, in an article written in 1888 on "Ballard" says that William remained for some time in Virginia, but after the death of his wife he removed to Andover, Massachusetts and died there in 1689. He married at Andover, Grace _____ and had (so T.D. says) Joseph, who married Elizabeth Phelps, and perhaps other children.
    "Thomas Ballard, son of William Ballard and Elizabeth, remained in Virginia, and in 1654 was Clerk of York County. (End of quoted statement).
    "Now, the list of "Emigrants to America" by Hotten, page 107, shows the following emigrants "imbarqued on the 'James', 13 July 1635, to be transported to New England":
    William Ballard, Husband 32 years
    Elizabeth Ballard, 26 years
    Hester Ballard, 2 years
    Jo. Ballard, 1 year
    "No "Thomas Ballard, aged 5" is shown in this list and the ship evidently sailed directly to New England.
    "There was a Ballard family in Wadhurst, Sussex, England, whose arms were "Sable, a griffin sergeant ermine, armed or". They had resided there for many generations previous to the coming of Thomas Ballard to Virginia. (See Misc. Gen. & Heraldica) There were many "Thomas', Johns and Williams" in this family and it is very probable that Col. Thomas Ballard of Virginia was a descendant of one of the branches of this family. However, the "William Ballard", third son of Thomas Ballard who died at Wadhurst, Feb. 9, 1624, does not appear to be the William who came to America in the ship "James". Thomas Ballard's eldest son Thomas, was aged 15 in 1619, according to the above pedigree. He also had a daughter Elizabeth, unmarried, and another one, Martha, married to Abraham Haynes. Inasmuch as Thomas Ballard, the eldest son, was born in 1604, William, the third son, was born much later and therefore could not be the above William Ballard, born 1603 who came on the ship "James".
    "In a search for verification of the connection of this family with Virginia, it was found that Thomas Ballard, born in 1604, who married Anne, daughter of Sir Nathaniel Napper, (Berry's Sussex p. 116) made his will in London Sept. 10, 1641, same probated Sept. 18, 1641. He bequeathed all his lands and tenements given him in the will of his father, Thomas, to his brother William Ballard; wife Anne, daughter Anne; godchild Samuel Maplesden; brothers Mr. John White, and Abraham Haynes. Executor, brother William Ballard. (It seems that his sister Elizabeth married John White). The will of Thomas' brother, Richard of London, was probated Aug. 1, 1638. He died unmarried and bequeathed his property to his bother, Abraham Haynes, Rector of St. Olaves, Hart Street, London. The children of Abraham Haynes were: Martha, born Mar 15, 1634; Thomas, born Oct. 18, 1638; William, born April 22, 1640; Abraham Haynes, died Mar 29, 1649; Martha, his wife died Sept 23, 1647 (Register). (The wills are from the "Ballard Genealogy" by C. F. Farlow, 1911, p. 1) William Ballard was the survivor of this family and inherited all of their property. It is very doubtful, therefore, that he would leave England for America.
    "Thomas Ballard, the founder of the Virginia family, as "Mr. Thomas Ballard", patented "1000 acres in Glouster Co., now called "New Kent Co." on S.E. side of Mattapony, along the head of Mr. William Wyatt's land, 16 July 1655, for the transportation of 20 persons". (C.P. 309) His next patent was for 600 acres upon the head of Poropotank River, W.N.W. upon land of Capt. Stephen Gill, dec'd. 15 Oct 1657. Thomas assigned this land to Major David Cant, April 2, 1662. (C.P. 334, 496)
    "On Oct 6 1658, Thomas Hickman re-patented Thomas Ballard's first grant of 1000 acres in New Kent for Hickman's grant shows same "granted to Mr. Thomas Ballard 16 July 1655 and by him deserted." (C.P. 379)
    "It seems that Thomas Ballard "deserted" the 1000 acres and added 300 more "upon the north side of Mattapony River" for on Oct 6 1658, he patented 1300 acres there and used the same 20 headrights he had used in his first grant. (C.P. 380)
    "On April 16, 1664, Anthony Branch patented 150 acres on N.W. branch of Nansemond River, which had been sold to him by Mr. Thomas Ballard.
    "Thomas Ballard was appointed Clerk of York County in 1652, and served for many years thereafter. He was a Burgess from James City in 1666; was appointed Lt. Col. of Militia in 1669, and a member of the Council in 1675, later was re-elected to the House of Burgesses and became Speaker of the House in 1680-84. Colonel Ballard's wife Ann, together with Mrs. Elizabeth Bacon, wife of Nathaniel Bacon, Sr., (A cousin of Nathanial Bacon, Jr. the Rebel); Mrs. Angelica Bray, wife of Colonel James Bray, and Mrs. Elizabeth Page, wife of Colonel John Page, all wives of members of the Council were captured by Nathanial Bacon, Jr., during his rebellion, by a raid on the Middle Plantation.
    "When Bacon besieged Jamestown these ladies, wearing white aprons, were compelled to stand before his breastworks, so they could be recognized by their husbands, and thereby cause Gov. Berkeley to cease his cannonade. (2 W I-276)
    "Colonel Ballard married Ann, step-daughter of William Thomas, whose will was probated in York County, about 1664. In his will Thomas mentioned wife Anne; . . . calls Sarah Herman and Jane Hilliard "daughters-in-law" and Thomas Ballard "son-in-law". Son-in-law in those days meant "step-son" (See Hilliard).
    "Thomas Ballard and his son, Thomas, were vestrymen of Historic Bruton Parish Church at Williamsburg where he was buried March 24, 1689. His name is inscribed on a bronze tablet in the interior of the Church, also on the name plate of a pew.
    "His children were: (1.) John, dsp. (2) Thomas, (1654-1711); (3) Lydia; (4) Elizabeth; (5) Martha; (6) William; (7) Francis, all said to have been born at Middle Plantation, now Williamsburg.
    ------------------------
    See from America's first families ancestor roll of honor at http://www.linkline.com/personal/xymox/roh/ballard.htm

    THOMAS BALLARD
    VIRGINIA (1630/31-1689)

    In Colonial Virginia, Thomas BALLARD was often referred to as the Honorable Thomas BALLARD, or as Colonel BALLARD. He was born in March of 1630/31 in England. Some researchers believe that he was brought to the New World as a child by his parents.

    Whether or not he came as a child, it is fair to say that he was the founder of the Virginia BALLARD family. Thomas BALLARD married Anne THOMAS in 1650. Anne bore his eight children before her death in 1678.

    Thomas lived in York County, Virginia, and imported at least twenty persons into Gloucester County, Virginia, under the head right system. He also patented land in Gloucester, County as well as lands on the Propotank and Mattapony rivers. Both the head right system and the land patenting practice were devised to populate the new colonies and proved to be lucrative propositions for many of the early colonists.

    Thomas BALLARD was a party to a number of recorded land trading transactions. Among these was the purchase and sale of the land on which William and Mary College was founded."The College of William and Mary was originally built on a tract of 330 acres most of which has been sold off, only about 30 acres remain. The tract was the property of the Honorable Thomas LUDWELL, Secretary of State 1660-1678, who lived at 'Richneck'on the west side of Archers Hope Creek. Thomas LUDWELL sold this land March 1674-75 to Hon. Thomas BALLARD of the Council...In 1693 BALLARD sold the same tract to the Trustees of the College."

    It was probably Thomas BALLARD Jr. who made the sale in 1693, since Thomas the elder died in 1689. It is of interest to note that the grandson of Colonel Thomas BALLARD, William BALLARD, married a LUDWELL.

    Thomas BALLARD was a member of the Governor's Council, whose members were chosen from the wealthiest, most educated and influential citizens of the colony. In this office, of Counselor, he was both a Naval officer and a collector of customs. Members of this council constituted the Upper House of the General Assembly. In many respects, they were the New World counterpart of the English House of Lords. His many offices included Clerk of York County, Member of Council, Member of the House of Burgesses, and Speaker of the House of Burgesses. He was also a Colonel in the James City County
    militia.

    At the height of his political career, the Bacon Rebellion had a devastating effect on his life. In a raid on Middle Plantation, the rebels kidnapped the wives of many of the Governor's highest officials. These included the wife of Thomas BALLARD, as well as the wife of Nathaniel BACON's cousin, who was also on the Governor's Counsel.

    The kidnapped women were used as human shields against and retaliation of the Governor. Once the rebellion collapsed, BALLARD sat on the court martial of BACON the rebel. Still, the trauma of these events took its toll. Within a year of the court martial, BALLARD's wife died.

    In the following and final decade of his life, Thomas BALLARD remarried, was promoted to the rank of Colonel of the James City County militia, was elected speaker of the House of Burgesses, and was vestryman of Bruton Parish Church. Upon his death in 1689, he was buried at Bruton Church, and his name was inscribed on a bronze tablet as well as a pew nameplate there.
    Submitted by George F. Emerson

    The Children of Thomas BALLARD and Anne THOMAS were. 1. Thomas b.1654 York, Co. VA. d.c.26 Sept 1706 2.John b.1659 York Co. VA. 3. Lydia b.1660 York Co. VA. 4. Martha Margaret b.1661 James City Co. VA. 5. William b1663. 6. Elizabeth b.1665 Spottslvania, VA 7. Frances b.1665 James City Co. VA. 8. Matthew b.1667 James City, Co. VA
    Married 2, Alice?...no known children

    NOMINATED TO AMERICA'S FIRST FAMILIES ANCESTOR ROLL OF HONOR BY; THOMAS BALLARD'S 12TH GENERATION GREAT GRANDSON GEORGE FRANKLIN EMERSON of OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLAHOMA

    --------
    From Marriages of some Virginia Residents 1607-1800 by Dorothy Ford Wulfeck Volume I Surnames A-H, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. Baltimore 1986
    p. 64
    Thomas, Col., son of Col. Thomas, m. Katherine Hubard, dau. of John and Katherine. Bell, p. 173; 4V360; 35V49; 4W(1)135.
    -------------

    From Cavaliers and Pioneers Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 abstracted and indexed by Nell Marion Nugent, Virginia Land Office, Richmond, VA. 1934, Press of the Dietz Printing Co., Vol One.
    p. 309
    "MR. THOMAS BALLARD, 1,000 acs. Glouseter Co., now called New Kent Co., on S.E. side of Mettopony Riv & along the head of Mr. William Wyatt's land. 16 July 1655. Trans. of 20 pers: James Cook, Robert Fisher, Thomas Crump, Wm. Johnson, Wm. Cunningham, Elizabeth Masterson, Grace Farloe, Thomas Pritchard, Grace Fisher, Ann Simpson, James Glover, Thomas Pratt, Toby. Forester, Richard Proby, Cuthbert Jackson, James Cooper, William Smith, Fra. Crosyer, James Smith, Sarah Talbott. Page 350." Patent Book No. 3.
    p. 354 - Patent Book No. 4
    "THOMAS BALLARD, 600 acs. upon the head of Pyanketanke Riv. & W. N. W. upon land of Capt. Stephen Gill, dec'd. 15 Oct. 1657, p. 126, (186). Granted unto Abraham Moone 1 Nov. 1654, & by him assigned unto sd. Ballard. Renewed 2 Apr. 1662 in name of Major David Cant, assignee of sd. Ballard."
    p. 379 - Patent Book No. 4
    "THOMAS HICKMAN, 1000 acs. New Kent Co., 6 Oct. 1658, p. 224, (322). On S.E. side of Mattappany Riv., beg. at the head of Mr. Wm. Wyatts lower devdt. Granted to Mr. Thomas BALLARD 16 July 1655, by him deserted & now due for trans. of 20 pers. Rights for 640 acs. granted to Mr. Wm. Lewis, 25 May 1654 & assigned to sd. Hickman which patent & the land therein conteyned is relinquished."
    p. 380
    "MR. THOMAS BALLARD, 1300 acs. New Kent Co., 6 Oct. 1658, p. 232, (330). Upon N. side of Mattapany Riv. & branches of Whorecock Swamp. Trans. of 26 pers: Wm. Reynolls, Hannah Reynolds, Abygoll Reynolls, Jno. Reynolls, James Glover, Cutbert Jackson, James Smith, Hannah Reynolls, Deborah Reynolls, James Cooke, Robt. Fisher. Tho. Pratt, James Cooper, Sarah Talbott, Tho. Crumpe, Wm. Jnoson (Johnson), Wm. Cunningham, Eliz. Masterson, Toby. Forrester, Wm. Smith, Grace Farloe, Tho. Pritchard, Grace Fisher, Anna Simpson, Richard Proby, Francis Croper."
    p. 498 - Patent Book No. 5
    MAJOR DAVID CANT, 912 acs., 1 Oct. 1663, p. 316 (300). 600 acs. on S. side of Peanketanke Riv., bounded on E.S.E. with br. of same, W.N.W. upon land of Capt. Stephen Gill, dec'd., &c. 312 acs. on S. side of sd. Riv., adj. devdt. he is now seated on, beg. at the mouth of the Stoare (or Score) branch &c. to Stephen Gills land &c. to Mr. Ludlowes corner Sickamore tree &c. 600 acs. granted to THOMAS BALLARD 14 Oct. 1657 & assigned to sd. Cant & 312 acs. for trans. of 6 pers: Fra. Hart, Wm. Callis, Mary Partin, Tho. Jones, Wm. Crump, Edw. Lewre."
    p. 518
    ANTHONY BRANCH, 150 acs. in the N.W. br. of Nancimond Riv., butting on land of Symon Symons &c. 16 Aug. 1664, p. 382, (426). Granted to Robt. Sabin 11 June 1653, by him sold to Mr. THOS. BALLARD, who sold to sd. Branch.

    From "Genealogies of Virginia Families" from Tyler's Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine.

    Colonel Thomas Ballard was an attorney and a member of the House of Burgesses from James City Co., VA, 1666. Re-elected for the sessions 1682-83-84-85-86. He was Speaker of the House of Burgesses in 1680-82-83-84. He was Owner of historic "Middle Plantation", on which some of the land is now located on the College of William and Mary, and a part of the city of Williamsburg. Thomas Ludwell sold this land March 1674-75 to Honorable Thomas Ballard of the Council by the deed below." (no copy). In 1693 Ballard sold the same tract of land to the Trustees of the College, and the Deed was at the College, until about 1892, when it disappeared.

    Colonel Ballard and his wife are mentioned as victims of Nat Bacon's Rebellion. The Colonel was a member of the King's Council, 1675-1688. This was a position of high honor under Governor Berkeley who in turn received his appointment from the King.

    "Colonel Thomas Ballard was born in 1630, baptized at Inkborough, England, County of Worcester, 1636. He was the son of Henry Ballard, baptized at St. Margaret's West Minster, February 28, 1585, England and he died in Virgina.

    Colonel Thomas Ballard died at his home in Middle Plantation, now Williamsburg and was buried at Bruton Parish, March 24, 1689. He married Miss Anne Thomas, daughter of William and Ann Thomas of York County, Virginia. She died September 26, 1678.
    ----------------

    From Southside Virginia Families by John Bennett Boddie, 1955, Pacific Coast Publishers, Redwood City, California, pp. 17-24
    "It has been stated that the first of the name in America was William Ballard, born in England 1609 and his son Thomas, born in England in 1630, same to America on the ship "James", arriving at Yorktown in May 1635. The Richmond Times Dispatch, in an article written in 1888 on "Ballard" says that William remained for some time in Virginia, but after the death of his wife he removed to Andover, Massachusetts and died there in 1689. He married at Andover, Grace _____ and had (so T.D. says) Joseph, who married Elizabeth Phelps, and perhaps other children.
    "Thomas Ballard, son of William Ballard and Elizabeth, remained in Virginia, and in 1654 was Clerk of York County. (End of quoted statement).
    "Now, the list of "Emigrants to America" by Hotten, page 107, shows the following emigrants "imbarqued on the 'James', 13 July 1635, to be transported to New England":
    William Ballard, Husband 32 years
    Elizabeth Ballard, 26 years
    Hester Ballard, 2 years
    Jo. Ballard, 1 year
    "No "Thomas Ballard, aged 5" is shown in this list and the ship evidently sailed directly to New England.
    "There was a Ballard family in Wadhurst, Sussex, England, whose arms were "Sable, a griffin sergeant ermine, armed or". They had resided there for many generations previous to the coming of Thomas Ballard to Virginia. (See Misc. Gen. & Heraldica) There were many "Thomas', Johns and Williams" in this family and it is very probable that Col. Thomas Ballard of Virginia was a descendant of one of the branches of this family. However, the "William Ballard", third son of Thomas Ballard who died at Wadhurst, Feb. 9, 1624, does not appear to be the William who came to America in the ship "James". Thomas Ballard's eldest son Thomas, was aged 15 in 1619, according to the above pedigree. He also had a daughter Elizabeth, unmarried, and another one, Martha, married to Abraham Haynes. Inasmuch as Thomas Ballard, the eldest son, was born in 1604, William, the third son, was born much later and therefore could not be the above William Ballard, born 1603 who came on the ship "James".
    "In a search for verification of the connection of this family with Virginia, it was found that Thomas Ballard, born in 1604, who married Anne, daughter of Sir Nathaniel Napper, (Berry's Sussex p. 116) made his will in London Sept. 10, 1641, same probated Sept. 18, 1641. He bequeathed all his lands and tenements given him in the will of his father, Thomas, to his brother William Ballard; wife Anne, daughter Anne; godchild Samuel Maplesden; brothers Mr. John White, and Abraham Haynes. Executor, brother William Ballard. (It seems that his sister Elizabeth married John White). The will of Thomas' brother, Richard of London, was probated Aug. 1, 1638. He died unmarried and bequeathed his property to his bother, Abraham Haynes, Rector of St. Olaves, Hart Street, London. The children of Abraham Haynes were: Martha, born Mar 15, 1634; Thomas, born Oct. 18, 1638; William, born April 22, 1640; Abraham Haynes, died Mar 29, 1649; Martha, his wife died Sept 23, 1647 (Register). (The wills are from the "Ballard Genealogy" by C. F. Farlow, 1911, p. 1) William Ballard was the survivor of this family and inherited all of their property. It is very doubtful, therefore, that he would leave England for America.
    "Thomas Ballard, the founder of the Virginia family, as "Mr. Thomas Ballard", patented "1000 acres in Glouster Co., now called "New Kent Co." on S.E. side of Mattapony, along the head of Mr. William Wyatt's land, 16 July 1655, for the transportation of 20 persons". (C.P. 309) His next patent was for 600 acres upon the head of Poropotank River, W.N.W. upon land of Capt. Stephen Gill, dec'd. 15 Oct 1657. Thomas assigned this land to Major David Cant, April 2, 1662. (C.P. 334, 496)
    "On Oct 6 1658, Thomas Hickman re-patented Thomas Ballard's first grant of 1000 acres in New Kent for Hickman's grant shows same "granted to Mr. Thomas Ballard 16 July 1655 and by him deserted." (C.P. 379)
    "It seems that Thomas Ballard "deserted" the 1000 acres and added 300 more "upon the north side of Mattapony River" for on Oct 6 1658, he patented 1300 acres there and used the same 20 headrights he had used in his first grant. (C.P. 380)
    "On April 16, 1664, Anthony Branch patented 150 acres on N.W. branch of Nansemond River, which had been sold to him by Mr. Thomas Ballard.
    "Thomas Ballard was appointed Clerk of York County in 1652, and served for many years thereafter. He was a Burgess from James City in 1666; was appointed Lt. Col. of Militia in 1669, and a member of the Council in 1675, later was re-elected to the House of Burgesses and became Speaker of the House in 1680-84. Colonel Ballard's wife Ann, together with Mrs. Elizabeth Bacon, wife of Nathaniel Bacon, Sr., (A cousin of Nathanial Bacon, Jr. the Rebel); Mrs. Angelica Bray, wife of Colonel James Bray, and Mrs. Elizabeth Page, wife of Colonel John Page, all wives of members of the Council were captured by Nathanial Bacon, Jr., during his rebellion, by a raid on the Middle Plantation.
    "When Bacon besieged Jamestown these ladies, wearing white aprons, were compelled to stand before his breastworks, so they could be recognized by their husbands, and thereby cause Gov. Berkeley to cease his cannonade. (2 W I-276)
    "Colonel Ballard married Ann, step-daughter of William Thomas, whose will was probated in York County, about 1664. In his will Thomas mentioned wife Anne; . . . calls Sarah Herman and Jane Hilliard "daughters-in-law" and Thomas Ballard "son-in-law". Son-in-law in those days meant "step-son" (See Hilliard).
    "Thomas Ballard and his son, Thomas, were vestrymen of Historic Bruton Parish Church at Williamsburg where he was buried March 24, 1689. His name is inscribed on a bronze tablet in the interior of the Church, also on the name plate of a pew.
    "His children were: (1.) John, dsp. (2) Thomas, (1654-1711); (3) Lydia; (4) Elizabeth; (5) Martha; (6) William; (7) Francis, all said to have been born at Middle Plantation, now Williamsburg.
    ------------------------
    See from America's first families ancestor roll of honor at http://www.linkline.com/personal/xymox/roh/ballard.htm

    THOMAS BALLARD
    VIRGINIA (1630/31-1689)

    In Colonial Virginia, Thomas BALLARD was often referred to as the Honorable Thomas BALLARD, or as Colonel BALLARD. He was born in March of 1630/31 in England. Some researchers believe that he was brought to the New World as a child by his parents.

    Whether or not he came as a child, it is fair to say that he was the founder of the Virginia BALLARD family. Thomas BALLARD married Anne THOMAS in 1650. Anne bore his eight children before her death in 1678.

    Thomas lived in York County, Virginia, and imported at least twenty persons into Gloucester County, Virginia, under the head right system. He also patented land in Gloucester, County as well as lands on the Propotank and Mattapony rivers. Both the head right system and the land patenting practice were devised to populate the new colonies and proved to be lucrative propositions for many of the early colonists.

    Thomas BALLARD was a party to a number of recorded land trading transactions. Among these was the purchase and sale of the land on which William and Mary College was founded."The College of William and Mary was originally built on a tract of 330 acres most of which has been sold off, only about 30 acres remain. The tract was the property of the Honorable Thomas LUDWELL, Secretary of State 1660-1678, who lived at 'Richneck'on the west side of Archers Hope Creek. Thomas LUDWELL sold this land March 1674-75 to Hon. Thomas BALLARD of the Council...In 1693 BALLARD sold the same tract to the Trustees of the College."

    It was probably Thomas BALLARD Jr. who made the sale in 1693, since Thomas the elder died in 1689. It is of interest to note that the grandson of Colonel Thomas BALLARD, William BALLARD, married a LUDWELL.

    Thomas BALLARD was a member of the Governor's Council, whose members were chosen from the wealthiest, most educated and influential citizens of the colony. In this office, of Counselor, he was both a Naval officer and a collector of customs. Members of this council constituted the Upper House of the General Assembly. In many respects, they were the New World counterpart of the English House of Lords. His many offices included Clerk of York County, Member of Council, Member of the House of Burgesses, and Speaker of the House of Burgesses. He was also a Colonel in the James City County
    militia.

    At the height of his political career, the Bacon Rebellion had a devastating effect on his life. In a raid on Middle Plantation, the rebels kidnapped the wives of many of the Governor's highest officials. These included the wife of Thomas BALLARD, as well as the wife of Nathaniel BACON's cousin, who was also on the Governor's Counsel.

    The kidnapped women were used as human shields against and retaliation of the Governor. Once the rebellion collapsed, BALLARD sat on the court martial of BACON the rebel. Still, the trauma of these events took its toll. Within a year of the court martial, BALLARD's wife died.

    In the following and final decade of his life, Thomas BALLARD remarried, was promoted to the rank of Colonel of the James City County militia, was elected speaker of the House of Burgesses, and was vestryman of Bruton Parish Church. Upon his death in 1689, he was buried at Bruton Church, and his name was inscribed on a bronze tablet as well as a pew nameplate there.
    Submitted by George F. Emerson

    The Children of Thomas BALLARD and Anne THOMAS were. 1. Thomas b.1654 York, Co. VA. d.c.26 Sept 1706 2.John b.1659 York Co. VA. 3. Lydia b.1660 York Co. VA. 4. Martha Margaret b.1661 James City Co. VA. 5. William b1663. 6. Elizabeth b.1665 Spottslvania, VA 7. Frances b.1665 James City Co. VA. 8. Matthew b.1667 James City, Co. VA
    Married 2, Alice?...no known children

    NOMINATED TO AMERICA'S FIRST FAMILIES ANCESTOR ROLL OF HONOR BY; THOMAS BALLARD'S 12TH GENERATION GREAT GRANDSON GEORGE FRANKLIN EMERSON of OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLAHOMA

    --------
    From Marriages of some Virginia Residents 1607-1800 by Dorothy Ford Wulfeck Volume I Surnames A-H, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. Baltimore 1986
    p. 64
    Thomas, Col., son of Col. Thomas, m. Katherine Hubard, dau. of John and Katherine. Bell, p. 173; 4V360; 35V49; 4W(1)135.
    -------------

    From Cavaliers and Pioneers Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1800 abstracted and indexed by Nell Marion Nugent, Virginia Land Office, Richmond, VA. 1934, Press of the Dietz Printing Co., Vol One.
    p. 309
    "MR. THOMAS BALLARD, 1,000 acs. Glouseter Co., now called New Kent Co., on S.E. side of Mettopony Riv & along the head of Mr. William Wyatt's land. 16 July 1655. Trans. of 20 pers: James Cook, Robert Fisher, Thomas Crump, Wm. Johnson, Wm. Cunningham, Elizabeth Masterson, Grace Farloe, Thomas Pritchard, Grace Fisher, Ann Simpson, James Glover, Thomas Pratt, Toby. Forester, Richard Proby, Cuthbert Jackson, James Cooper, William Smith, Fra. Crosyer, James Smith, Sarah Talbott. Page 350." Patent Book No. 3.
    p. 354 - Patent Book No. 4
    "THOMAS BALLARD, 600 acs. upon the head of Pyanketanke Riv. & W. N. W. upon land of Capt. Stephen Gill, dec'd. 15 Oct. 1657, p. 126, (186). Granted unto Abraham Moone 1 Nov. 1654, & by him assigned unto sd. Ballard. Renewed 2 Apr. 1662 in name of Major David Cant, assignee of sd. Ballard."
    p. 379 - Patent Book No. 4
    "THOMAS HICKMAN, 1000 acs. New Kent Co., 6 Oct. 1658, p. 224, (322). On S.E. side of Mattappany Riv., beg. at the head of Mr. Wm. Wyatts lower devdt. Granted to Mr. Thomas BALLARD 16 July 1655, by him deserted & now due for trans. of 20 pers. Rights for 640 acs. granted to Mr. Wm. Lewis, 25 May 1654 & assigned to sd. Hickman which patent & the land therein conteyned is relinquished."
    p. 380
    "MR. THOMAS BALLARD, 1300 acs. New Kent Co., 6 Oct. 1658, p. 232, (330). Upon N. side of Mattapany Riv. & branches of Whorecock Swamp. Trans. of 26 pers: Wm. Reynolls, Hannah Reynolds, Abygoll Reynolls, Jno. Reynolls, James Glover, Cutbert Jackson, James Smith, Hannah Reynolls, Deborah Reynolls, James Cooke, Robt. Fisher. Tho. Pratt, James Cooper, Sarah Talbott, Tho. Crumpe, Wm. Jnoson (Johnson), Wm. Cunningham, Eliz. Masterson, Toby. Forrester, Wm. Smith, Grace Farloe, Tho. Pritchard, Grace Fisher, Anna Simpson, Richard Proby, Francis Croper."
    p. 498 - Patent Book No. 5
    MAJOR DAVID CANT, 912 acs., 1 Oct. 1663, p. 316 (300). 600 acs. on S. side of Peanketanke Riv., bounded on E.S.E. with br. of same, W.N.W. upon land of Capt. Stephen Gill, dec'd., &c. 312 acs. on S. side of sd. Riv., adj. devdt. he is now seated on, beg. at the mouth of the Stoare (or Score) branch &c. to Stephen Gills land &c. to Mr. Ludlowes corner Sickamore tree &c. 600 acs. granted to THOMAS BALLARD 14 Oct. 1657 & assigned to sd. Cant & 312 acs. for trans. of 6 pers: Fra. Hart, Wm. Callis, Mary Partin, Tho. Jones, Wm. Crump, Edw. Lewre."
    p. 518
    ANTHONY BRANCH, 150 acs. in the N.W. br. of Nancimond Riv., butting on land of Symon Symons &c. 16 Aug. 1664, p. 382, (426). Granted to Robt. Sabin 11 June 1653, by him sold to Mr. THOS. BALLARD, who sold to sd. Branch.

    Marriage 1 Alice


    Marriage 2 Anne Thomas b: ABT. 1630 in York Co., VA

    • Married: 1650 in York Co., VA 1

    Children

    1. Has Children Thomas Ballard b: 1654 in Middle Plantatio, York Co., VA

    2. Has No Children John Ballard b: 1659 in York Co., VA

    3. Has No Children Lydia Ballard b: 1660 in York County, Virginia

    4. Has No Children Martha Margaret Ballard b: 1661 in James City County, Virginia

    5. Has No Children William Ballard b: 1663

    6. Has Children Francis Ballard b: 1665 in James City Co., Virginia

    7. Has No Children Elizabeth Ballard b: 31 DEC 1665 in Spotslvania, James City Co., Virginia

    8. Has No Children Matthew Ballard b: 1667 in James City Co., Virginia


    Sources:

    1. Title: mann.FTW
      Repository:
      Call Number:
      Media: Other
      Text: Date of Import: Oct 25, 1998

    2. Title: bett's file 2.FTW
      Repository:
      Call Number:
      Media: Other
      Text: Date of Import: Nov 8, 1998

    3. Title: rush.FTW
      Repository:
      Call Number:
      Media: Other
      Text: Date of Import: Oct 10, 1999

BACON'S REBELLION 

Bacon's Rebellion was probably one of the most confusing yet intriguing chapters in Jamestown's history. For many years, historians considered the Virginia Rebellion of 1676 to be the first stirring of revolutionary sentiment in America, which culminated in the American Revolution almost exactly one hundred years later. However, in the past few decades, based on findings from a more distant viewpoint, historians have come to understand Bacon's Rebellion as a power struggle between two stubborn, selfish leaders rather than a glorious fight against tyranny.

The central figures in Bacon's Rebellion were opposites. Governor Sir William Berkeley, seventy when the crisis began, was a veteran of the English Civil Wars, a frontier Indian fighter, a King's favorite in his first term as Governor in the 1640's, and a playwright and scholar. His name and reputation as Governor of Virginia were well respected. Berkeley's antagonist, young Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., was actually Berkeley's cousin by marriage. Lady Berkeley, Frances Culpeper, was Bacon's cousin. Bacon was a troublemaker and schemer whose father sent him to Virginia in the hope that he would mature. Although disdainful of labor, Bacon was intelligent and eloquent. Upon Bacon's arrival, Berkeley treated his young cousin with respect and friendship, giving him both a substantial land grant and a seat on the council in 1675.

Bacon's Rebellion can be attributed to a myriad of causes, all of which led to dissent in the Virginia colony. Economic problems, such as declining tobacco prices, growing commercial competition from Maryland and the Carolinas, an increasingly restricted English market, and the rising prices from English manufactured goods (mercantilism) caused problems for the Virginians. There were heavy English losses in the latest series of naval wars with the Dutch and, closer to home, there were many problems caused by weather. Hailstorms, floods, dry spells, and hurricanes rocked the colony all in the course of a year and had a damaging effect on the colonists. These difficulties encouraged the colonists to find a scapegoat against whom they could vent their frustrations and place the blame for their misfortunes.

The colonists found their scapegoat in the form of the local Indians. The trouble began in July 1675 with a raid by the Doeg Indians on the plantation of Thomas Mathews, located in the Northern Neck section of Virginia near the Potomac River. Several of the Doegs were killed in the raid, which began in a dispute over the nonpayment of some items Mathews had apparently obtained from the tribe. The situation became critical when, in a retaliatory strike by the colonists, they attacked the wrong Indians, the Susquehanaugs, which caused large scale Indian raids to begin.

To stave off future attacks and to bring the situation under control, Governor Berkeley ordered an investigation into the matter. He set up what was to be a disastrous meeting between the parties, which resulted in the murders of several tribal chiefs. Throughout the crisis, Berkeley continually pleaded for restraint from the colonists. Some, including Bacon, refused to listen. Nathaniel Bacon disregarded the Governor's direct orders by seizing some friendly Appomattox Indians for "allegedly" stealing corn. Berkeley reprimanded him, which caused the disgruntled Virginians to wonder which man had taken the right action. It was here the battle lines were about to be drawn.

A further problem was Berkeley's attempt to find a compromise. Berkeley's policy was to preserve the friendship and loyalty of the subject Indians while assuring the settlers that they were not hostile. To meet his first objective, the Governor relieved the local Indians of their powder and ammunition. To deal with the second objective, Berkeley called the "Long Assembly" in March 1676. Despite being judged corrupt, the assembly declared war on all "bad" Indians and set up a strong defensive zone around Virginia with a definite chain of command. The Indian wars which resulted from this directive led to the high taxes to pay the army and to the general discontent in the colony for having to shoulder that burden.

The Long Assembly was accused of corruption because of its ruling regarding trade with the Indians. Not coincidentally, most of the favored traders were friends of Berkeley. Regular traders, some of whom had been trading independently with the local Indians for generations, were no longer allowed to trade individually. A government commission was established to monitor trading among those specially chosen and to make sure the Indians were not receiving any arms and ammunition. Bacon, one of the traders adversely affected by the Governor's order, accused Berkeley publicly of playing favorites. Bacon was also resentful because Berkeley had denied him a commission as a leader in the local militia. Bacon became the elected "General" of a group of local volunteer Indian fighters, because he promised to bear the cost of the campaigns.

After Bacon drove the Pamunkeys from their nearby lands in his first action, Berkeley exercised one of the few instances of control over the situation that he was to have, by riding to Bacon's headquarters at Henrico with 300 "well armed" gentlemen. Upon Berkeley's arrival, Bacon fled into the forest with 200 men in search of a place more to his liking for a meeting. Berkeley then issued two petitions declaring Bacon a rebel and pardoning Bacon's men if they went home peacefully. Bacon would then be relieved of the council seat that he had won for his actions that year, but he was to be given a fair trial for his disobedience.

Bacon did not, at this time, comply with the Governor's orders. Instead he next attacked the camp of the friendly Occaneecheee Indians on the Roanoke River (the border between Virginia and North Carolina), and took their store of beaver pelts.

In the face of a brewing catastrophe, Berkeley, to keep the peace, was willing to forget that Bacon was not authorized to take the law into his own hands. Berkeley agreed to pardon Bacon if he turned himself in, so he could be sent to England and tried before King Charles II. It was the House of Burgesses, however, who refused this alternative, insisting that Bacon must acknowledge his errors and beg the Governor's forgiveness. Ironically, at the same time, Bacon was then elected to the Burgesses by supportive local land owners sympathetic to his Indian campaigns. Bacon, by virtue of this election, attended the landmark Assembly of June 1676. It was during this session that he was mistakenly credited with the political reforms that came from this meeting. The reforms were prompted by the population, cutting through all class lines. Most of the reform laws dealt with reconstructing the colony's voting regulations, enabling freemen to vote, and limiting the number of years a person could hold certain offices in the colony. Most of these laws were already on the books for consideration well before Bacon was elected to the Burgesses. Bacon's only cause was his campaign against the Indians.

Upon his arrival for the June Assembly, Bacon was captured, taken before Berkeley and council and was made to apologize for his previous actions. Berkeley immediately pardoned Bacon and allowed him to take his seat in the assembly. At this time, the council still had no idea how much support was growing in defense of Bacon. The full awareness of that support hit home when Bacon suddenly left the Burgesses in the midst of heated debate over Indian problems. He returned with his forces to surround the statehouse. Once again Bacon demanded his commission, but Berkeley called his bluff and demanded that Bacon shoot him.

"Here shoot me before God, fair mark shoot."

Bacon refused. Berkeley granted Bacon's previous volunteer commission but Bacon refused it and demanded that he be made General of all forces against the Indians, which Berkeley emphatically refused and walked away. Tensions ran high as the screaming Bacon and his men surrounded the statehouse, threatening to shoot several onlooking Burgesses if Bacon was not given his commission. Finally after several agonizing moments, Berkeley gave in to Bacon's demands for campaigns against the Indians without government interference. With Berkeley's authority in shambles, Bacon's brief tenure as leader of the rebellion began.

Even in the midst of these unprecedented triumphs, however, Bacon was not without his mistakes. He allowed Berkeley to leave Jamestown in the aftermath of a surprise Indian attack on a nearby settlement. He also confiscated supplies from Gloucester and left them vulnerable to possible Indian attacks. Shortly after the immediate crisis subsided, Berkeley briefly retired to his home at Green Springs and washed his hands of the entire mess. Nathaniel Bacon dominated Jamestown from July through September 1676. During this time, Berkeley did come out of his lethargy and attempt a coup, but support for Bacon was still too strong and Berkeley was forced to flee to Accomack County on the Eastern Shore.

Feeling that it would make his triumph complete, Bacon issued his "Declaration of the People" on July 30, 1676 which stated that Berkeley was corrupt, played favorites and protected the Indians for his own selfish purposes. Bacon also issued his oath which required the swearer to promise his loyalty to Bacon in any manner necessary (i.e., armed service, supplies, verbal support). Even this tight reign could not keep the tide from changing again. Bacon's fleet was first and finally secretly infiltrated by Berkeley's men and finally captured. This was to be the turning point in the conflict, because Berkeley was once again strong enough to retake Jamestown. Bacon then followed his sinking fortunes to Jamestown and saw it heavily fortified. He made several attempts at a siege, during which he kidnapped the wives of several of Berkeley's biggest supporters, including Mrs. Nathaniel Bacon Sr., and placed them upon the ramparts of his siege fortifications while he dug his position. Infuriated, Bacon burned Jamestown to the ground on September 19, 1676. (He did save many valuable records in the statehouse.) By now his luck had clearly run out with this extreme measure and he began to have trouble controlling his men's conduct as well as keeping his popular support. Few people responded to Bacon's appeal to capture Berkeley who had since returned to the Eastern Shore for safety reasons.

On October 26th, 1676, Bacon abruptly died of the "Bloodie Flux" and "Lousey Disease" (body lice). It is possible his soldiers burned his contaminated body because it was never found. (His death inspired this little ditty; Bacon is Dead I am sorry at my hart That lice and flux should take the hangman's part".)

Shortly after Bacon's death, Berkeley regained complete control and hung the major leaders of the rebellion. He also seized rebel property without the benefit of a trial. All in all, twenty-three persons were hanged for their part in the rebellion. Later after an investigating committee from England issued its report to King Charles II, Berkeley was relieved of the Governorship and returned to England where he died in July 1677.

Thus ended one of the most unusual and complicated chapters in Jamestown's history. Could it have been prevented or was it time for inevitable changes to take place in the colonial governmental structure? Obviously, the laws were no longer effective as far as establishing clear policies to deal with problems or to instill new lifeblood into the colony's economy. The numerous problems that hit the colony before the Rebellion gave rise to the character of Nathaniel Bacon. Due to the nature of the uprising, Bacon's Rebellion does seem at first glance to be the beginnings of America's quest for Independence. But closer examination of the facts reveals what it really was: a power struggle between two very strong personalities. Between them they almost destroyed Jamestown.

 

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